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游玩、做梦、分心,这些听起来都像是不认真学习作业的代名词。但正是这些行为,得以让大脑思想放飞,不经意间就能供给许多问题的答案。神经学家和心思学家正将游玩和发明力联系到一同,以为游玩能激起人类的发明力。而许多闻名作曲家和科学家的比方,也印证了这一观念。

“前路走不通时,我会挑选往后退一步,然后从头规划道路,这样能让我走的更远。”在处理问题的见地上,19世纪物理学家赫尔曼冯亥姆霍兹将自己比作爬山运动员,他自省问题的办法也为咱们提出了一个问题:发明性思想是怎么战胜低谷抵达下一个高峰的?

思想不像是有组织的生命体或许能够自我拼装的分子,它是很笼统的东西,不行能用惯例的物理或化学手法来行进。但思想也会想方设法地去完成向前推动的意图,这其间最重要的一种办法便是“游玩”。

这种游玩不是指有规矩的棋盘游戏或足球竞技,而更像是为所欲为,没有规矩的游戏,比方像孩子玩乐高积木,这种游玩不带意图性,没有利益联系,乃至没有失利。

游玩关于生命个别来说很重要,它的存在要远远早于人类呈现的时刻。游玩或许是年少动物操练交配的手法,简直一切的年少哺乳动物都会游玩,鸟类中的鹦鹉和乌鸦、一些匍匐类动物、鱼类,乃至蜘蛛中都曾有过游玩的记载。可是提到最会游玩的动物,还对错宽吻海豚莫属,它们曾被记载过有37种不同的游玩办法。圈养海豚会孜孜不倦地玩球和其他玩具,野生海豚则会玩茸毛、海绵和从气孔中喷出的“水圈”。

可是游玩是要付出价值的。年青的动物会把一天20%的能量预算花在游玩上,这就意味着这些能量不能用于捕食。此外,游玩还会带来一些生计相关的问题:由于相互追逐或跟在母亲死后游玩,猎豹幼崽会吓跑猎物;由于贪玩而堕入泥潭的大象;被仙人掌刺钉住的大角羊等。有的动物乃至还会由于游玩误杀了自己或许火伴。在一项1991年的研讨中,剑桥研讨院的Robert Harcourt调查了一群南美海狗。一个时节内,群落里有102只幼崽被海狮进犯,其间26只逝世,并且超越80%的幼崽是在游玩时被进犯而逝世的。

已然游玩的价值如此之高,那必定也会带来许多优点。乃至有时,游玩能够决议生与死。举例来说,新西兰的野马越贪玩,它们在第一年就存活得越好。阿拉斯加棕熊的幼崽一岁时分的游戏行为,能让它们安稳地度过冬季。

别的,某些游玩行为也不是单纯地为了放松精力。马会在游玩进程中让肌肉变得更强;狮子幼崽们玩打架的游戏,实则是为日后抢夺部落领袖的奋斗打下根底;海豚吹空气泡泡,是在操练利诱和捕捉猎物的技巧;雄性蜘蛛操练怎样在交配后快速远离雌性,以防被其他雄性进犯。

至少在哺乳动物中,游玩的作用不仅仅单纯地操练某项行为,当它们盯梢、捕猎和逃跑时,它们能够发现自己处在史无前例的新环境中。科罗拉多大学研讨员Marc Bekoff终身都在研讨动物行为,他以为游玩扩展了动物的行为规模,能让它们灵敏习惯不断改动的周遭环境。换句话说,动物的游玩是具有发明性的,不论这是否能立刻被利用上,但正是这些游玩行为让动物能为不行预知的意外做好预备。

在1978年一项以幼鼠为目标的试验中,为阻挠同龄同伴之间的沟通游玩,小鼠在笼子中被网离隔。经过一段时刻的阻隔后,研讨人员教一切小鼠经过拉出一个橡皮球来交换食物,随后将食物获取的办法从“拉出球”换成“抛球”。与自在游玩的小鼠比较,被掠夺了游玩的小鼠需求花费更长的时刻来学习获取食物的新办法。

游玩与发明力

剑桥大学的动物行为专家Patrick Bateson则更直接地将调查到的动物行为与发明力联系了起来。他以为,游玩能够让人从一些思想上的死胡同中走出来,当你卡在某个点想不通的时分,还会让你恍然大悟,并发生新的主意

青霉素的发现者Alexander Fleming常常被上司责备他过于松懈的作业花生壳,正常体温是多少,红旗suv-雷竞技-雷竞技电竞渠道情绪,但Fleming说,“我会跟显微镜做游戏......打破规矩,发现没人留意的东西对错常风趣的。”2010年诺贝尔物理学奖得主Andre Geim曾宣告“作业中坚持游戏情绪一直是我的特色。除非你可巧在对的时刻、对的地址刚好取得了想要的成果,或许你有他人没有的捷径。不然,咱们只能冒险来寻觅出路。”

James Watson和Francis Crick发现了DNA双螺旋,可是他们却是从五颜六色小球中取得了启示,这些五颜六色小球能够像积木相同粘在一同,就这样他们建立了双螺旋模型。用Watson的话说,他们要做的不过是“开端游玩吧”。

时刻短中止游玩行为,会让咱们的判别才能阻滞,因而咱们会失掉选取好主意的才能,可是康复游玩时这种才能又会回来。这便是为什么咱们有时会跌入不完美的低谷,然后又会再次爬上完美的高峰。游玩仅仅到达意图的一种办法罢了。

梦也是相同强壮的。心思学家Jean Piaget将做梦比作游玩,他的开创性研讨协助咱们了解了儿童的生长进程。正是在梦中,咱们的大脑才会自在地将最奇特的思想和图画片段组合成小说中的人物和情节。闻名歌手Paul McCartney曾在梦中听到了一首歌曲,在梦里他以为这是他人发明出的歌曲,因而他将其作曲出来后,问询了音乐界人士是否知道这首歌,成果当然是没人听过。就这样,这首梦中的歌 Yesterday 成为了20世纪最成功的歌曲之一;德国生理学家Otto Loewi在梦到了一个重要试验的主意,这个试验花生壳,正常体温是多少,红旗suv-雷竞技-雷竞技电竞渠道在日后证明了神经递质的沟通功用,这为他赢得了诺贝尔奖。

Paul McCartney在梦中发明出了金曲Yesterday

即便在半睡眠状态下,咱们的大脑也满足敞开幻想。在这种状态下,August Kekule发现了苯的结构;Mary Shelley构思了《弗兰肯斯坦》;Dmitri Mendeleev发现了化学元素周期表。

游玩和做梦都是咱们放飞思想的办法。据陈述,96%的美国成年人每天都会放飞思想,也便是分心,而别的4%的人或许仅仅由于心猿意马而没留意到罢了。要判别一个人在做一件作业时分心的频率很简略,直接问他们就好了。打断正在作业的人,问问他们在想什么;在恣意时刻给研讨参与者发一条短信,问询他们在想什么。留神理学家这样做时,他们发现人类分心的频率高得惊人,大部分人的大脑在三分之一到一半的时刻里是都在分心。

分心通常被以为是无害的,但不代表这没成果。心猿意马的人很难会集留意力,比方他们会在阅览了解测验中体现得很差。更令人担忧的是,他们在考试中的体现也更差,其间包含许多大学入学要求的学业才能测验。假如你有作业志向的话,最好仍是不要挂科。

可是分心也有有利的一面——至少关于操练有素的脑筋来说是这样。现实上,像爱因斯坦、牛顿和闻名数学家亨利庞加莱这样的人,他们处理了许多重要的问题。可是,许多时分他们并没有故意研讨这些问题,比方阿基米德在进入浴缸时发现了应该怎么丈量物体的体积。阿基米德这一最重要的发现,是由他进入浴缸时不断上升的水中取得的。庞加莱曾描绘了他有一段时刻在数学识题上没有取得成功的心态:

在灵光一现,主意到来之前,咱们会把这段看似闲暇的时期叫做思想孕育期。当你在努力作业,却没有取得什么成果后,来一些不需求留意力高度会集的活动(比方漫步、烹饪、洗澡),大脑思想就能自在地周游了。而当思想周游到你开端处理不了的问题时,就或许会偶尔得出处理办法。

这个所谓的思想孕育进程是无意识的,但却能增强发明力。在一项试验中,135名大学生参加了一项关于发明力的心思测验,他们被分为三组,测验要求他们找到日常用品的不寻常用处,比方砖头或铅笔。测验开端几分钟后,心思学家打断了第一组学生,并给他们安置了一项不相关的使命,给学生们看一系列的数字,并让他们分辨出哪些是偶数,哪些是奇数,这项新使命比较简略,但这分散了学生们对测验的留意力。在被打断之后,学生们继续进行发明力测验,他们的答案比没有被打断的第二组学生更具发明力。

图片来历:pixabay

第三组学生也被打断了,但他们被分配了更困难的使命,需求留意力更会集的使命。他们的答案则没有第一组那么有构思。所以,结论是,简略到简直不需求留意力的“打断“能够解放思想,然后发明性地处理问题。

假如分心会影响发明力,那么反过来冥想就应该有相反的作用。现实也的确如此。2012年的一项研讨标明,人们在冥想进程中会削减分心,因而能够进步学术考试的分数。但在发明力测验中,冥想的人却显着不如那些分心的人。

正如生物演化与自然挑选之间会到达一个奇妙的平衡,发明力相同也需求平衡。当你冥思苦索而没有发展时,或许某些主意就在手边,你要做的便是停下手头的作业,去玩,去做梦,让思绪周游起来。

来历:举世科学 翻译:董依明

Why It Pays to Play AroundPlay is so important that nature nvented it long before it invented us.

By Andreas Wagner

June 6, 2019

The 19th-century physicist Hermann von Helmholtz compared his progress in solving a problem to that of a mountain climber “compelled to retrace his step快穿宋妧s because his progress stopped.” A mountain climber, von Helmholtz said, “hits upon traces of a fresh path, which again leads him a little further.” The physicist’s introspection provokes the question: How do creative minds overcome valleys to get to the next higher peak?

Because thinking minds are different from evolving organisms and self-assembling molecules, we cannot expect them to use the same means—mechanisms like genetic drift and thermal vibrations—to overcome deep valleys in the landscapes they explore. But they must have some wa朱茵当街喂奶y to achieve the same purpose. As it turns out, they have more than just one—many more. But one of the most important is play.

I don’t mean the rule-based play of a board game or the competitive play of a soccer match, but rather the kind of freewheeling, unstructured play that children perform with a pile of LEGO blocks or with toy shovels and buckets in a sandbox. I mean playful behavior without immediate goals and benefits, without even the possibility of failure.

AN EASY GAME TO PLAY: Paul McCartney has said he dreamed the tune for “Yesterday” and “woke up one morning with this tune in my head.” In dreams, as in play, writes Andreas Wagner, “our minds are at their freest.”Shutterstock

Play is so important that nature invented it long before it invented us. Almost all young mammals play, as do birds like parrots and crows. Play has been reported in reptiles, fish, and even spiders, where sexually immature animals use it to practice copulation. But the world champion of animal play may be the bottlenose dolphin, with 37 different reported types of play. Captive dolphins will play untiringly with balls and other toys, and wild dolphins play with objects like feathe杨成瑞在泰安很知名吗rs, sponges, and “smoke rings” of air bubbles that they extrude from their blowholes.

Such widespread play must be more than just a frivolous whim of nature. The reason: It costs. Young animals can spend up to 20 percent of their daily energy budget goofing around rather than, say, chasing dinner. And their play can cause serious problems. Playing cheetah cubs frequently scare off prey by chasing each other or by clambering over their stalking mother. Playing elephants get stuck in mud. Playing 姐summerbighorn sheep g陈绮贞为什么叫陈装装et impaled on cactus spines. Some playful animals even get themselves killed. In a 1991 study, Cambridge researcher Robert Harcourt observed a colony of South American fur seals. Within a single season, 102 of the colony’s pups were attacked by sea lions, and 26 of them were killed. More than 80 percent of the killed pups were attacked while playing.

With costs this high, the benefits can’t be far behind. And indeed, where the benefits of play have been measured, they can make the difference between life and death. The more feral horses from New Zealand play, for example, the better they survive their first year. Likewise, Alaskan brown bear cubs that played more during their first summer not only survived the first winter better, but also had a better chance to survive花生壳,正常体温是多少,红旗suv-雷竞技-雷竞技电竞渠道 subsequent winters.

Male spiders practice how to copulate fast enough to get away from a female before other males attack them.

Some purposes of such play have nothing to do with mental problem solving. When horses play, they strengthe田敬然n their muscles, and that very strength can help them survive. When lion cubs play-fight, they prepare for the real fights that will help them dominate the group. When dolphins play with air bubbles, they are honing their skills at confusing and catching prey. And when male spiders play at sex, they practice how to copulate fast enough to get away from a female before other males attac豪门长媳17岁k them.

But at least in mammals, play goes beyond mere practice of a stereotypical behavior, like that of a pianist rehearsing the same passage over and over again. When mammals stalk, hunt, and escape, they find themselves in ever-new situations and environments. Marc Bekoff, a researcher at the University of Colorado and a life花生壳,正常体温是多少,红旗suv-雷竞技-雷竞技电竞渠道long student of animal behavior, argues that play broadens an animal’s behavioral repertoire, giving them the flexibility to adapt to changing circumstances. In other words, animal play creates diverse behaviors, regardless of whether that diversity is immediately useful. It prepares the player for the unexpected in an unpredictable world.

That very flexibility can also help the smartest animals solve difficult problems. A 1978 experiment demonstrated its value for young rats. In this experiment, some r尼玛拉姆ats were separated from their peers for 20 days by a mesh in their cage, which prevented them from playing. After the period of isolation, the resear花生壳,正常体温是多少,红旗suv-雷竞技-雷竞技电竞渠道chers taught all the rats to get a food reward by pulling a rubber ball out of the way. They then changed the task to a new one where the ball had to be pushed instead of pulled. Compared to their freely playing peers, the play-deprived rats topornosok much longer to try new ways of getting at the food and solving this problem.

University of Cambridge ethologist Patrick Bateson linked observations like this more 尤靖茹几岁directly to the landscapes of creation when he argued that play can “fulfill a probing role that enables the individual to escape from false endpoints, or local optima” and that “when stuck on a metaphorical lower peak, it can be beneficial to have active mechanisms for getting off it and onto a higher one.” In this view, play is to creativity what genetic drift is to evolution and what heat is to self-assembl撸丝二区ing molecules.

If that is the case, it is hardly surprising that creative p花生壳,正常体温是多少,红旗suv-雷竞技-雷竞技电竞渠道eople often describe their work as playful. Alexander Fleming, who would discover penicillin, was reproved by his boss for his playful attitude. He said, “I play with microbes ... It is very pleasant to break the rules and to find something that nobody had thought of.” Andre Geim, 2010 Nobel laureate in physics, declared that “a playful attitude has always been the hallmark of my research ... Unless you happen to be in the right place and the right time, or you have花生壳,正常体温是多少,红旗suv-雷竞技-雷竞技电竞渠道 facilities no one else has, the only way is to be more adventurous.” When James Watson and Francis Crick discovered the double helix, they had help in the form of colored balls they could stick together—LEGO-like—to build a model. In Watson’s words, all they had to do was “begin to play.” And C.G. Jung, one of the fathers of psychoanalysis, said it best: “The debt we owe to the play of imagination is incalculable.”

One hallmark of play is that it suspends judgment so that we are no longer focused on selecting good ideas and discarding bad ones. That’s what allows us to descend into the valleys of imperfection to later climb the peaks of perfection. But play is only one means to get there.

Less deliberate but just as powerful are the dreams that we experience in our sleep. It is no coincidence that the psychologist Jean Piaget, whose trailblazing research helped us understand how children develop, likened dreaming to play. It is in dreams that our minds are at their freest to combine the most bizarre fragments of thoughts and images into novel characters and plotlines. Paul McCartney famously first heard his song “Yesterday” in a dream and did not believe that it was an original song, asking people in the music business for weeks afterward whether they knew it. They didn’t. “Yesterday” would become one of the 20th century’s most successful songs, with 7 million performances and more than 2,000 cover versions. Another dream whispered to the German physiologist Otto Loewi the idea for a crucial experiment, which proved that nerves communicate through chemicals that we now call neurotransmitters. It would win him a Nobel Prize.

Mind-wandering is staggeringly frequent. The typical mind is absent between a third and half the time.

Even in the state of half-sleep—psychologists call it hy北京瑞得伊格尔科技有限公司pnagogia—our minds are sufficiently loose to descend from those lowly hills. In this state, August Kekule, saw the structure of benzene, Mary Shelley found the idea for her iconic novel Frankenstein, and Dmitri Mendeleev discovered the periodic table of the chemical el容子菲ements.

Similar to playing and dreaming is the wandering of our minds. Ninety-six percent of adult Americans report that it happens to them daily—the other 4 percent may be too absent-minded to notice. To quantify how often any one mind wanders during a task is simple: Ask. Interrupt people who work on the task and ask what’s on their mind. Or let mobile phones do the work for you. Program them to send study participants a text asking what they are thinking about at random times of the day. When psychologists do that, they find that mind-wandering is staggeringly frequent. The typical mind is absent between a third and half the time.

Mind-wandering is often considered a harmless quirk, as in the cliche of the scatter-brained professor. But it has real consequences. Let’s begin with the bad ones. Absentminded people perform less well on tests that require focused attention, such as reading comprehension tests. More worrisome, they also perform more poorly on tests that you better not flunk if you have any career aspirations. Among them is the Scholastic Aptitude Test that many colleges require for admission.

But mind-wandering also has an upside—at least for well-trained minds. Indeed, many anecdotes of creators like Einstein, Newton, and eminent mathematician Henri Poincar, report that these scientists solved important problems while not actually working on anything. The common wisdom that the best ideas arrive in the shower is exemplified by Archimedes’s discovery of how to measure an object’s volume. (OK, he was in a bathtub.) But while Archimedes’s discovery was triggered by the rising water as he entered th高泰宇和黄靖翔闹掰了e tub, other breakthroughs surface apropos of nothing.木加辛 Take this well-known quote from the Poincar describing a period in his life when he had worked without success on a mathematical problem:

Disgusted with my failure, I went to spend a few days at the seaside, and thought of something else. One morning, walking on the bluff, the idea came to me, with … brevity, suddenness, and immediate certainty, that the arithmetic transformations of indeterminate ternary quadratic forms were identical with those of non-Euclidean geometry.

The apparently idle period before such insights arrive has a name: incubation. If hard and seemingly futile work on a difficult problem is followed up with a less demanding activity that does not require complete focus—walking, showering, cooking—a mind is free to wander. And when that mind incubates the problem, it can stumble upon a solution.

Incubation is as unconscious as it is real, and it enhances creativity. In one experiment making that point, 135 college students took a psychological test for creativity that required them to find unusual uses for everyday objects, like bricks or pencils. A few minutes into the test, the psychologists running the experiment interrupted some students and gave them an unrelated task. The new task did not take much effort—the students were shown a series of digits and had to tell which of them were even or odd—but it distracted the students from the test. After that interruption, the students continued with the creativity test, and they found more-creative answers than a second group of students who had not been given the distracting task.

Students in a third group got a break like the first, but they were东游到武之憨豆的假日 given a harder task that required more focus. And, lo and behold, their answers were less creative than those of the first group. The conclusion: Undemanding tasks—easy enough to require little attention, but hard enough to prevent conscious work on a problem—can free a mind to wander and solve a problem creatively.

If mind-wandering impacts creativity, then its opposite, the control of attention practiced in mindfulness meditation, should have the opposite effects, both good and bad. And indeed it does. A 2012 study showed, for example, that mindfulness meditation, by reducing mind-wandering, can improve scores on standardi好想日zed academic t李道滨ests. In contrast, less mindful individuals perform better on creativity tests like that just mentioned.

The message is clear: Just as biological evolution can require a balance between natural selection, which pushes uphill, and genetic drift, which does not, so too does creativity require a balance between the selection of useful ideas—where a focused mind comes in handy—and the suspension of that selection to play, dream, or allow the mind to wander.

Andreas Wagner is the author of Life Finds a Way: What Evolution Teaches Us About Creativity. He is a professor and chairman at the Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies at the University of Zurich and an external professor at the Santa Fe Institute. He is also the author of four books on evolutionary innovation.

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